research articles

Assessing personality across 13 countries using the California Adult Q-set


  • Gwendolyn Gardiner
  • Esther Guillaume
  • Nick Stauner
  • Jaechang Bae
  • Gyuseong Han
  • Jungsoon Moon
  • Igor Bronin
  • Christina Ivanova
  • Joey T. Cheng
  • François De Kock
  • Sylvie Graf
  • Martina Hřebíčková
  • Peter Halama
  • Ryan Hong
  • Paweł Izdebski
  • Clara Kulich
  • Fabio Lorenzi-Cioldi
  • Lars Penke
  • Piotr Szarota
  • Jessica Tracy
  • Yu Yang
  • David Funder



personality, cross-cultural personality, personality traits, cross-cultural assessment


The current project measures personality across cultures, for the first time using a forced-choice (or idiographic) assessment instrument - the California Adult Q-set (CAQ). Correlations among the average personality profiles across 13 countries (total N = 2,370) ranged from r = .69 to r = .98. The most similar averaged personality profiles were between USA/Canada; the least similar were South Korea/Russia/Poland and China/Russia. The Czech Republic had the most homogeneous personality descriptions and South Korea had the least. In further analyses, country differences in CAQ-derived Big Five scores were compared to results obtained from previous research using nomothetic Likert scales (i.e., the NEO; the BFI). The Big Five templates produced generally similar findings to previous research comparing the Big Five across countries using Likert-type methods.





research articles